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GPK电子 > 教学科研 > 正文

制度研究与教育学

作者: 任天野 更新时间: 2019年12月06日 18:58:50 游览量: 87

JIANSHU:

GPK电子 ZHIDUYANJIU;JIEGOU—GONGNENGLUN;JIUZHIDUJIAOYUXUE;SHEHUIXUEXINZHIDUZHUYI;XINZHIDUJINGJIXUE;XINZHIDUJIAOYUXUE

  内容提要: 在很长的时间内,人们都是从别的或者含混的角度来解读教育制度。其中,结构—功能论的教育制度研究否定教育制度的变革可能,把教育制度理解成教育实践的外生变量;旧制度教育学虽然重视教育制度的教育意义,但也把现实教育制度理解成强加在教育实践之上的牢笼或框架,最终导致激进的制度干预或批判;社会学新制度主义承认制度的重要性,但强调制度的作用不是体现在对效率的追求上,而是体现在对合法性的保障上;早期的新制度教育学虽然承认教育制度的内生性,但没有完全摆脱新制度经济学的痕迹,不能真正深入到微观的教育实践内部,形成有教育学特色的概念与表述体系,因而后来被一种更有教育学意味的理解所取代。在这里,GPK电子将通过追述有关教育制度理解的不同范式,来说明最适合解读教育制度的那样一种教育学式的理解。

  关 键 词: GPK电子制度研究 结构—功能论 旧制度教育学 社会学新制度主义 新制度经济学 新制度教育学

GPK电子  ZHONGTUFENLEIHAO: G40 WENXIANBIAOSHIMA: A WENZHANGBIANHAO: 1671-6124(2018)03-0001-14

  JIAOYUZHONGDEZHIDUFENXI,ZHUYAOBAOKUOLIANGFANGMIANDEGONGZUO: YIFANGMIANSHICONGZHIDUDEJIAODULAIKANDAIJIAOYUWENTI,YEJIUSHIBAZHIDUSHIZUOJIAOYUWENTIDEHEXIN;LINGYIFANGMIANZESHEJIDUIJIAOYUZHIDUDELIJIE,YOUQISHIRUHECONGJIAOYUDEJIAODULAIKANDAIZHIDUBENSHEN。SHITUCONGZHIDUDEJIAODULAISIKAOJIAOYUWENTI,BUSHIYIJUNEIXIECHUNKEGUANDE、BUYIRENDEYIZHIWEIZHUANYIDEWUZHILILIANGLAIJIESHIJIAOYU,ERSHIRENKESHEHUIXINGDONGBENSHENDELILIANG。DANGRAN,JIBIANZAIRENMENBEIYAOQIUWANQUANFUCONGYUWAIWUDESHIHOU,ZHEIGESHIJIEYIRANSHIRENZHUDAODESHIJIE。ZHISHIZHEILIDEZHUDAOZHENAISHIYIXIEBEIJINGXINYANSHILEDETEQUANZHE,ZHENGSHITAMENBUDUANYAOQIUGPKDIANZIJIESHOUZHEIZHONG“KEGUAN”XIANSHI。XIANZAIFASHENGDENAISHIYIGEHENDADEZHUANXIANG,BUSHIBATEDINGDEQUNTIHUOGERENDANGZUOZHIDUDEZUIZHONGGENJI,ERSHIRENWEISHIJIEJIANLIZAIHUDONGDEJICHUZHISHANG。ZHISHIGPKDIANZIZHEILIGUANZHUDEZHUYAOBUSHIRUHECONGZHIDUDEJIAODULAIFENXIJIAOYU,ERSHIRUHECONGJIAOYUDEJIAODULAIFENXIZHIDU。ZUIZHONGZOUDAOZHEIYIBUBINGBURONGYI。ZAIHENZHANGDEYIDUANSHIJIANNEI,RENMENDOUSHICONGBIEDEHUOZHEHANHUNDEJIAODULAIJIEDUJIAOYUZHIDU。ZAIZHEILI,GPKDIANZIJIANGTONGGUOZHUISHUYOUGUANJIAOYUZHIDULIJIEDEBUTONGFANSHI,LAISHUOMINGZUISHIHEJIEDUJIAOYUZHIDUDENEIYANGYIZHONGJIAOYUXUESHIDELIJIE。

  一、结构—功能论的研究

  DIYIGEZHIDUFENXIFANSHISHIJIEGOU—GONGNENGLUNTIGONGDE。ZHEIZAITUERGANDESHEHUIXUELILUNZHONGKEYIZHAODAOQICHUXING。TUERGANJIANGSHEHUIXIANXIANGKANCHENGSHI“YIZHONGQIANGZHILI,PUBIANCUNZAIYUTUANTIZHONG,BUJINYOUTADULIYUGERENGUYOUDECUNZAIXING,ERQIEZUOYONGYUGEREN,SHIRENGANSHOUDEXIANXIANG”[1]。SHOUZHEIYI“KEGUANSHISHI”YIYISHANGDESHEHUIGAINIANDEYINGXIANG,JIEGOU—GONGNENGLUNDEZHIDUGUANNAISHIYIZHONGZHENGTIZHUYIDEZHIDUGUAN。TAQIANGDIAORENHEZHIDUDOUSHIYIGEHEXIEDEZHENGTI,BUYILAIYURENHEGERENXINGDONG,FANERNENGDUIGERENSHIJIAMOUZHONGQIANGZHIBINGRANGRENXINYUECHENGFU。ERQIERENHEZHIDUDOUYOUQITEDINGDEGONGNENG,ZHIDUYUZHIDUZHIJIANKEYIWUFENGXIANJIE,YOUSHENMEWENTIYIBANYEKEYIZIXINGXIUFU。

GPK电子  MALINNUOFUSIJI(Bronislaw Malinowski,1884-1942)SHIGONGNENGZHUYIDERENLEIXUEDAJIA,YESHITUIDONGGONGNENGZHUYIXIANGRENLEIXUESHENTOUDEGUANJIANRENWU。TAQIANGDIAODUIRENHEYIZHONGSHEHUIZHIDUDEYANJIU,DOUYINGZIXIKAOCHARUXIALIUGEFANGMIANDEWENTI: (1)RENSHI,JIUSHISHUO,WEILEMIAOSHUYIGEZHIDU,NIYAOLEJIESHENMERENHEDUOSHAORENCANYULEZHIDU;(2)GUIZHANG,JIUSHIKAOCHAZHIDUDEMUDESHISHENME,HUOZHETAGONGKAIXUANCHENGDEMUBIAOSHISHENME;(3)GUIFAN,JIUSHISHUOMINGSHENMESHIGUIDINGHEZUZHIXINGDONGDEZHUYAOGUIFAN;(4)WUZHISHESHI,JIUSHISHUOMINGZAIMUBIAODEZHUIQIUZHONG,YONGLAIZUZHIHEDIAOJIEXINGDONGDEGONGJUSHISHENME;(5)HUODONG,JIUSHIMIAOSHUTASHIZENMEFENPEIRENWUHEHUODONGDE,SHENMERENZUOSHENMEGONGZUO;(6)GONGNENG,JIUSHIJIESHIMOUZHONGZHIDUHUODONGFANGSHIMANZUDEBIYAOTIAOJIANSHISHENME[2]。ZHEIZHONGZHIDUFENXIYEBARENLEISHENGHUOZUOWEIYIZHONGZHENGTILAIKANDAI,RANHOUFENXITADERENSHI、GUIZHANG、GUIFAN、WUZHISHESHI、HUODONGHEGONGNENG,YEJIUSHICONGFANGFANGMIANMIANMIAOSHURENLEISHENGHUO。ZHEIYEDAOZHIMALINNUOFUSIJIBASHENMEDONGXIDOUFANGZAIZHIDULIMIAN,KEJIANTADEZHEIGEZHIDUGAINIANHENZA。

  DUIZHIDUGONGNENGDEFENXIZAIPASENSI(Talcott Parsons,1902-1979)DEAGILMOSHIDANGZHONGTIXIANDEGENGCHONGFEN。ZAIZHEILI,ASHIadaption,JIUSHISHIYING。PASENSIRENWEI,XIANSHISHENGHUOZHONGYOUYIXIEXITONGYAOCHENGDANSHIYINGDEGONGNENG,YICONGHUANJINGZHONGHUODEKEZHIPEIDESHOUDUANHEZIYUAN,RANHOUZAIZHENGGEXITONGZHONGJINXINGFENPEI,ZHEIZHONGXITONGBEITACHENGWEIYOUJITIHUOZHESHIJINGJIXITONG。GJIUSHIgoal-attainment,YEJIUSHIZAIXITONGMUBIAOZHONGJIANLICIXUJIBIE,BINGDIAODONGXITONGDEZIYUANQUSHIXIANZHEIXIEMUBIAO。ZAIPASENSIKANLAI,WAIZAIDEZIYUANXUYAOZHENGFUJIGOULAIXIEDIAO,NEIZAIDEZIYUANXUYAORENGEXITONGLAIXIEDIAO。ISHIintegration,JIUSHIZHENGHE,YIZHIHEZUOHEBAOCHIXITONGDANWEIZHIJIANDEHEXIEYOUXU。ZAIZHENGGESHEHUIZHONGCHENGDANZHENGHEGONGNENGDEBEIRENWEIZHUYAOSHISHEHUIXITONGHEGONGTONGTIXITONG,SHEHUIYIGERENWEIDANWEI,GONGTONGTIYIQINMIGUANXIWEIJICHU,RUJIATING、CUNLUO、PENGYOUQUAN、HUNYIN、JIEYIGONGTONGTIDENG。LSHIlatent pattern-maintenance and tension-management,JIUSHIQIANZAIMOSHIDEWEICHIJIYUCIXIANGGUANDEJINZHANGDECHULI,ZHIZAIQUEBAOSHEHUIXINGDONGZHEXIANSHIHESHIDEGEXING。CHENGDANZHEIYIGONGNENGDEZHUYAOSHIWENHUAXITONGYUXINTUOXITONG,BAOKUOXUEXIAO、JIAOHUIDENG。PASENSIJIUZHEIYANGKANDAISHEHUI,RENWEITASHIYIGEWANZHENGDEZHENGTI,QIZHONGDEGEBUFENDOUYAOCHENGDANTEDINGDEGONGNENG。BUDANZHENGTISHEHUIRUCI,JIUQIMEIYIGEZIXITONGERYAN,TAMENBENSHENYEKEYIFENWEIA、G、I、LSIGEGONGNENGBIBEIXIANG,YOUSIGEYAXITONGFENBIECHENGDAN[2-3]。JIUXIANGELUOSITAOWANEIYANG,ZHISHIMEIGETAOWAZHONGJIANBUSHIFANGYIGETAOWA,ERSHIFANGSIGE。ZHAOCI,DUIYUYIXIANGSHEHUIZHIDUDEFENXI,GUANJIANSHIYAODINGWEITADEGONGNENG,RANHOUZAIJIESHIZHEIZHONGZHIDUHEQITAGONGNENGBIBEIXIANGDEGUANXI。

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